The above crown was used by Kiani Kings of Iran and is in the national museum - Iran
The illustrated history of earlier kings named as The Epic of Kings was completed by Iranian poet and philosopher Ferdowsi in 1010 AD i.e. about 1000 years back. Hafeez Jalandhari a prominent Pakistani poet stated in foreword of Shahnama-e-Islam that:
' kia Ferdowsi-e-marhoom nain Iran ko Zindah - Khuda tofeeq day to main karoon Islam ko zindah'
Hafeez was inspired by Ferdowsi. The Epic of Kings completed by Ferdowsi 1010 A.D has a well documented detail of earlier Kiani Kings. Inspiration by a nation or a country gives life to its people. There are many Kiani / Gakhar families who do not know about their ancestors and their glorious past. This effort of finding facts, took over 20 years and involved lot of travelling and reading. The question ' WHO IS WHO' can be proved as follows :(1) Through proven / documented history, which every one can try to research and trace back. (The author, Mohammad Ashraf Kiani has honestly tried, however there is room for improvement . All suggestions may be sent to the e-mail given at the bottom of this web site for improvements)
(2) DNA TESTS proving relations of different people around the world and their ancestors. A person in Ukraine or Turkey or China or America or India or Arabia may be a Kiani / Gakhar, who knows! ' Every one is free to try DNA TEST method to see his or her Y linkage. Kianis / Gakhars physically exist in various parts of the globe. It may be possible to create good brotherly cordial relations and thus work on universal brotherhood based on justice equality for mankind.
Kiani Crown is safe in any Iranian museum. Reza Shah, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty, had his own crown designed but the Kiani Crown was present during his coronation. Kiani Crown is made of red velvet which has thousands of gems set onto it. The total height of the crown is 32 cm. without the aigrette, and the total width is 19.5 cm. Kiani Queen however used different crown.
According to Sultan Raja Zahur Akhtar on cover page of his book Kai-gohar nama, Gakhars are Turkish - Iranian who formed Royal Kiani dynasty of Iran They moved to sub-continent (Potohar) around 1002 A.D. and ruled the area for eight centuries, striving, combating, and ruling of this area of northen Pakistan is an exciting history now. The foreword of this book is written by Chief Justice (R) Dr. Javed Iqbal supereme court of Pakistan The family moved from central Asia (Tooran) about 10,000 years BC as Arians speaking people to Turkey. They were Turks at that time. About 8000 years BC, they moved to Turkmenistan. Due to earth quakes in that region they moved to Kurdistan about 6500 years BC. They lived there for several generations and gradually moved to neighboring Iran. In Turkey they were known as Turks, In Kurdistan Kurds. and in Iran Persians. They settled in an area known as Kehan, in Iran. They formed Royal Archimedean Dynasty about 6000 B.C. The formation of Kiani dynasty starts from word 'KAI' in the names of Kings like kai-khusro, Kai-qabad, Kai-gohar and other kings for centuries. Their decedents in Pakistan, India, Kashmir, Tibet, China, Turkey, central Asian states, Kurdistan, Iran, Afghanistan and other parts of the world are called Kiani dynasty. According to Iben-e-Khuldoon a renowned historians, the ruler of Kabul, Kabul Shah was a Kianian.
In La Perron's - History of the Pasrsis - p.27 it is said that a migration of Persians to China, under Feroz, a son of King Yazdezard, took place in the 7th century; it is suggested that this was the occasion when the ancestors of another Kianian dynasty settled in Kashmir and Tibet: an old M.S. pedigree-table produced shows a Sultan Yazdjar some 45 generations back. Frishta's reference with regard to their rule in Kashmir during Kaid Raj and Kabul and Kandhar p.881 also confirms this. Kaygohar Nama by Dewan Duni Chand in Persian, translated by Raja Mohammad Yaqoob Tariq in Urdu in form of History of Gakhars, p 203 refers to the origin of Kianis (Gakhars) and their rule in Kashmir. The official letters and documents of all Mughal Kings reveal the status of Gakhars before and during their rule in India. Iranian poet Ferdowsi in year 1010 completed Shahnama, which has detail of the earlier Kiani Kings starting from Sasani era. Chinese writers confirm the period of Feroz (Peroz) in China. History of Gakhars (Tareekh -e- Gakhran) by Raja Yaqoob Tariq, Kaygohar Nama by Sultan Zahur Akhtar and Persian writing of Duni Chand as well as the writings of Mughal kings have left valuable historical record regarding Kianis independent rule between Jhelum and Sind now major part of Pakistan.
Persia's conquest by Islamic Arab armies marks the transition into "medieval" Persia. The explosive growth of the Arab Caliphate coincided with the chaos caused by the end of Sassanid rule. The last king Yazdegerd was defeated by Muslim army. in 651. Two daughters of Kiani king Yazdgard were brought to Madina as captives. All had gathered in the holy mosque of Madina to see what was the decision of the caliph, about them. Ali suggested Urnmer, to free the girls so that they marry whosoever they wish. One princess Shahr Banu decided to marry Hussain ibn-e-Ali and the other other chose Imam Hassan ibn-e Ali . It is interesting to note that one sister of this princess was married to Chinese King.
Ali said to Hussain, "Look after this woman very well, because, from her an Imam (Zain-ul-Abidin) will come into existence who will be the best of the God's creations upon the earth and the father of all the Imams after himself. The marriages were authorized and solemnized by second caliph Omer in presence of Ali. The princess, who later became mother of Imam Zain-Ul-Abidin was given the highest status in the Islamic society. Although in the 7th century, the Sassanid king was defeated by Muslim Arabs, however Zoroastrians were awarded the status of People of the Book by the Caliph Omar, some of their practices being contrary to Islam were prohibited, such as sibling marriages. The relation of Muslims, with Kianis start from here.
The Arab empire, ruled by the Umayyad Dynasty, was the largest state in history up to that point. It stretched from Spain to the Indus, from the Aral Sea to the southern tip of Arabia. Yet the Umayyads borrowed heavily from Persian and Byzantine administrative systems and moved their capital to Damascus, in the center of their empire. The Umayyads would rule Persia for a hundred years.
The Arab conquest dramatically changed life in Persia. Arabic became the new lingua franca and Islam quickly replaced Zoroastrianism; mosques were built, and many Persians intermarried with Arabs. A new language, religion, and culture were added to the Persian culture.
Kianian Persian Empire
The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that ruled the country of Persia (Iran). Persia's earliest known kingdom was the proto-Elamite Empire, followed by the Medes; but it is the Achaemenid Empire emerged under Cyrus the Great that is usually the earliest to be called "Persian." Successive states in Iran before 1935 are collectively called the Persian Empire by Western historians.
Sassanid Persia (AD 226-650)
The wars and religious control that had fueled Sassanid Persia's early successes eventually contributed to its decline. The eastern regions were conquered by the White Huns in the late 400s. Adherents of a radical religious sect, the Mazdakites, revolted around the same time. Khosrau I was able to recover his empire and expand into the Christian countries of Antioch and Yemen. However, a final war with Rome utterly destroyed the empire. Between 605 and 629, Sassanids successfully annexed Levant and Egypt and pushed into Anatolia. Their armies even reached Constantinople, but could not defeat the Byzantines there. Emperor Heraclius successfully outflanked Sassanid armies in Asia Minor and handed them a crushing defeat in Northern Mesopotamia, this persian defeat was mentioned in Qur'an as a victory for believers (The Romans). Sassanids had to give up all their conquered lands and retreat. Heavy taxes and a very long war caused rebellions across the empire. Khosro II (Parviz) was assassinated in 629, this incidence was allegedly told (witted) by Muhammed before the assassination took place even as a punishment from God to Khosro II (Parviz) because of tearing Muhammed's message which contained a chapter of Qur'an and humiliating Muhammed's messangers. Then the empire plunged into anarchy after the death of his successor, Kavadh II. After a defeat at Nineveh in 642, civil war broke out and the king was assassinated. The Sassanid shahs no longer had control over the country.
There have been Prophets from Adam to Muhammad and some may have been un-identified like Cyrus the Great, Buddha, Zoroastrians and many others. The World's first charter of human rights was given to the world by Cyrus the Great, who is also accepted as Zulqarnain in the Holy Quran.
Head of King Shapur II of Sasanian dynasty 4th century
Islam and Persia - (650-1219)
Islamic conquest of Iran
Gold dinars of Ardashir- I, showing him first (left) wearing the jewelled Pathian crown of Mithradates II, and second (right) in the distinctive crown he devised for himself. This consists of a simple skull cap tied around the brows with a diadem, the hair gathered in a high silken globe or Keymbos. The Sasanians also see British Musem
Ahmad Shah was the last king of the kiani (Qajar) dynasty, reigned for about 16 years. He reigned with regent from 1909 to 1914, when he reached the legal age and crowned as the King of Persia (Despite the fact that he never wore the Kiani crown), therefore coins of this period are categorized into 2 groups: Before & after the coronation.
Bank notes of Kiani Kings
Click following to see Kiani Kings bank notes
Translated by Helen Zimmern
GAKHARS - Official Gazette of India
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References - useful Links. Click the following Links for:
Gakhars / Kianis / Gakhars as in Free Encyclopedia
Kiani Queen of Iran
Bakot / Khanpur Gakhars Tree
35 Kg pure gold globe
Size of fort
cost of one stone was equal to one gold coin taken from King.
Rohtas fort 1838
Origins of the Gakhars
Gakhars in South Asia & China
Mahmud of Ghazni and the Gakhars
Muhammad of Ghor and the Gakhars
The early Delhi Sultanate and the Gakhars
Timur and Sheikha Gakhar
The later Delhi Sutanate and Jasrat Gakhar
Emperor Babur and Hati Gakhar
Sher Shah Suri and Sultan Sarang Khan
The later Mughals and the Gakhars
The Sikh and British conquests
Prominent Gakhar figures
Kiani Crown in National Museum Iran
Dish Covers - National Museum Iran
Emeralds in National Museum Iran
Thrones of Kiani Kings - National Museum Iran
Historical Forts of Gakhars
Kianis and Islamabad
Gakhar Chief Jhanda Khan named Rawalpindi
Gakhars / Kianis as in free encyclopedia
35 Kg pure gold globe
Size of fort
Cost of one stone = one gold coin
History of Iran
Geography of Iran
List of scientists
Comprehensive list of kings
Gakhars history in Urdu